+20 2 3762 0904 / +372 5923 9322 / +44 745 225 4645

The Ancient City of Memphis and Memphis Necropolis

The Ancient City of Memphis was the first capital of unified Egypt and it was constructed in the 32nd century BC by King Narmer who was able to defeat the rulers of Upper Egypt and unite it with Lower Egypt to establish the first United Kingdom in Egypt and establish the first dynasty of the Egyptian history.

Today, Memphis has turned into an open air museum which allows all tourists coming from different regions in the globe who are enjoying their vacation in Egypt to visit it every day.

The Builder of Memphis

Narmer or Menes are the names of this great king, brave warrior, and army leader, was the first king to unify Egypt and establish the first dynasty to begin the dynastic period in the Egyptian history.

Narmer is the king of Egypt who established Memphis to become the capital of Egypt in the ruling period of the first dynasty of the ancient Egyptian history.

In 1988, James Edward, the English archeologist was able to unearth the Narmer Palette, which displays Narmer taking control of Upper and Lower Egypt. This was why he was believed by all Egyptologists that he was the unifier of Egypt.

The Egyptologists and history scholars have a prevalent unanimity that Narmer was in fact Menes. However, many historians believe that Narmer started the process of the unification of Egypt, however, he was killed before the completing it and his successor, and King Menes continued it. However, due to some historical records found in the ancient historical site of Abydos , it was now proved that Menes was in fact Narmer.

Geographical Location of Memphis

Narmer carefully chose the location of his new capital, Narmer, to be in the middle between Upper Egypt in the South and Lower Egypt in the North. Memphis is situated to the West South of Cairo, the Egyptian capital in a perfect location where the Nile Valley ends and the Nile Delta begins.

Narmer chose this exact location in order to be able to control the two kingdoms of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt all together. Memphis is located near many important historical sites in Cairo. This includes the Pyramids of Giza a, the ancient Necropolis of Saqqara, Dahshour, and Abu Sir.

The History of Memphis

The  City of Memphis was constructed in the reign of the King Narmer, the founder of the first dynasty in the ancient Egyptian history in the period between 3200 and 3000 BC. The city was called many names like the White Wall, the beautiful city, and the avenue of the sphinxes. The Greeks, when they took control of Egypt named the capital of Egypt at that time; Memphis. The city of Memphis remained as the capital of Egypt until the reign of the 8th dynasty.

Since the establishment of Memphis, the city has become one of the most important centers of civilization and a commercial hub in the Old World. This was due to the fact that Narmer has chosen this location that is situated between the Delta and the Nile Valley, brilliantly. This resulted in the increase in the number of inhabitants living in Memphis and the widening of its lands.

Although the ruling period of the New Kingdom at the beginning of the reign of the 18th dynasty witnessed that the kings and rulers of ancient Thebes kicked the Hyksos out of Egypt, Memphis was still a very important city of Egypt at that time even in spite of the fact that the capital was relocated from Memphis to ancient Thebes; Luxor today.

Memphis during the ruling period of the New Kingdom and until the reign of the Romans has turned in a learning center where many princes and members of the royal family received their education and training. The most famous among these who received their education in Egypt was Amenhotep II who was fully educated in Memphis and became the highest priests of Northern Egypt afterwards.

The Description of Memphis

Although the city of Memphis was established in the 32nd century BC and flourished during the ruling period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, all the displays we see today in the open-air museum of Memphis date back to the period of the New Kingdom.

The most important highlight displayed at the open-air museum in Memphis is the huge colossi of Ramses II that is 33 meters long carved out of limestone. Although the legs of the statue are missing, it is too huge to the extent that it was kept in a building especially created for it where tourists spending their holidays in Egypt can move around the statue from above.

Another remarkable display in the open-air museum is the alabaster sphinx which was constructed in the period between the 14th and the 17th century BC in the ruling period of the 18th dynasty, the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. With the length of the statue being 8 meters long and 4 meters high, the alabaster sphinx is one of the most attractive displays in the museum of Memphis.

Away from these marvelous displays, the exhibits at the open air museum in Memphis include large statues of gods and goddesses like Amun and Hathor, goddess of beauty. This is besides some other statues of king Ramses II, other kings of the new kingdom, and many stone tools that were used at that time.

A visit to Memphis, the first capital of Egypt, is a must for any traveler visiting Egypt who is fond of the ancient Egyptian history and architecture. The Colossi of Ramses II is truly magnificent. This is besides the fact that the travelers touring Egypt would witness the place where the first capital of Egypt was established.

Nearby Tourist Attractions

The Mohamed Ali Basha Museum In Shoubra

Have you heard about king Mohamed Ali before? He is one of the greatest Egyptian kings who built modern Egypt. Because of his greatness, he built a marvelous palace at a very special spot in Egypt.

Museum of Islamic Art

If you’re searching for a valuable museum to visit, you have to try visiting the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo because it’s one of the oldest and largest museums in the whole world. Inside this museum you will enjoy discovering more than 104,000 displays that present the greatness of the islamic civilization along Egyptian history.

Al-Muizz Al-Deen Allah Street

n a very unique visit to Al-Muizz Street, you will have a great feeling walking in the middle of the historical streets of the old Cairo and at the same time you will enjoy the modern part which shows in the neighborhood next to Al-Muizz Street. This can be a great example to discover the aging architecture alongside the modern architect. 

Coptic Museum in Cairo

Let’s have a quick trip to discover more about the coptic history in Egypt. All the information you have to know about this era in Egypt can be found at the Coptic Museum in Cairo where you can discover more about the visit of the holy family to Egypt

Al Azhar Mosque in Cairo

One of the milestones of islamic Cairo is the famous Al Azhar Mosque. This mosque is a must visit for those who adore the beautiful art of the islamic history, you will enjoy the artifacts and the architectural designs of the mosque.

Cairo Opera House

Music is the food of the soul. every human being whatever his education and level of living can enjoy the music somehow.

The National Museum of Egyptian Civilization

Following the Egyptian greatness, there is a newly opened museum in the capital of Egypt, Cairo city

The Pharaonic Village

What about traveling through time and having a living look at the ancient Egyptian lifestyle and how they used to live their life. Egypt has made this dream a true thing at The Pharaonic Village.

The Baron Palace

Egypt is always famous for its great touristic sites. In July 2020, there was a new big opening in Egypt for the majestic Baron Empain Palace. This palace is related to the Hindu designs and built more than 100 years ago.

The step pyramid of Djoser

Are you interested in discovering the first pyramid built in Egypt?! Here we will take you on a journey to explore the step pyramid of Djoser

The Mosque of Muhammad Ali

If you’re fond of Islamic art and want to discover something incredible you should definitely visit Muhammad Ali Mosque.

Cairo Tower

If a tourist asks what is the most remarkable and important

Pyramids of Giza

The most famous monument in the whole world

Pyramids of Dahshour

Many tourists who visit Egypt think that the land

Sultan Hassan Mosque and Madrassa

Sultan Hassan Mosque and Madrassa was built