About the Pyramids of Giza
The most famous monument in the whole world, a landmark of Egypt and its ancient civilization, and an architectural achievement that still amazes scientists and engineers until today, the Pyramids of Giza is surly one of the historical monuments tourists visiting Egypt should never miss.
Established as the royal necropolis of the kings of the Old Kingdom of the ancient Egyptian history, the pyramids of Giza was the result of many steps and evolutions in the pyramids building process in ancient Egypt. Starting with Abu Sir, Saqqara, and Dahshur, the pyramids of Giza was the most successful attempt among all of them. Many travelers who spend their vacation in Egypt admire the greatness of the Pyramids of Giza.
Geographical Location of the Pyramids of Giza
The Pyramids of Giza are situated at the end of a road that holds the same name in Arabic, El Ahram Street, at the end of the city of Giza.
Many ancient cities during the ruling period of the Pharaohs were was divided as the city of the living, which is located in the East Bank of the Nile, and the city of the dead located at the West Bank of the Nile and this was where the Pyramids of Giza constructed.
The pyramids of Giza are located near many other magnificent Pharaonic attractions like Saqqara, Memphis, and Dahshur. The pyramids can easily be reached by a taxi from anywhere in Cairo and Giza, or even with public busses. However, travelers who spending their vacation in Egypt, especially for the first time are always encouraged to book a tour to Egypt with one of the accredited travel companies in the land of the Nile.
The History of the Pyramids of Giza
The Pyramids of Giza was established more than 4000 years ago, exactly between the years 2550 and 2480 BC and the historical site hosts three major pyramids; The Grand Pyramid of Cheops, the Pyramid of Chephren, and the smaller pyramid of Mycerinus.
The Pyramid was actually the royal necropolis of kings and each pyramid used to have the name of the king buried inside it. The pyramids is actually the last step in a long process of evolution of the tombs in ancient Egypt.
At the very beginning it was only a simple hole in the ground, then a small room under the ground, then a number of rooms, two or three rooms with a layer of stones above it, and then a number of layers built above each others like the Pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara.
In fact the first proper pyramid to be constructed in Egypt was erected by King Senfru, the father of Cheops; the builder of the Grand Pyramid of Giza. After a failure attempt in the Meidum Pyramid near Fayoum, Senfru had two pyramids built in Dahshur, the Bent pyramid and the Red pyramid, the second largest pyramid in Egypt and the first successful attempt to construct a pyramid in ancient Egypt.
The shape of the pyramid was quite significant in ancient Egypt, according to many religious books and wall carvings. The Pharaohs believed that the pyramid played a role in the cosmogony and that it helped the soul of the deceased to reach the afterworld. This is why the pyramid shape can be seen on top of the ancient Egyptian obelisks and even in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor. Thank god that the Pharaohs erected these marvelous monuments that attract travelers all over the world to spend their holidays in Egypt.
The Description of the Pyramids of Giza
The Grand Pyramid of Cheops
King Cheops, the second king of the 4th dynasty of ancient Egypt, constructed the Grand Pyramid of Giza. It was built on a surface area of more than 13 acres. The pyramid originally had a height of 146 meters and it is now 137 meters high. The length of each of its sides is 230 meters.
It is estimated that more than two million stones were used to construct the Grand Pyramid of Giza with the weights of some them ranging from 3 to 25 tons at base of the pyramid. The original layout of the pyramid included a valley temple, ascending straits which lead to the mortuary temple situated to the East of the pyramid, and then the pyramid.
The entrance to the grand pyramid of Giza is situated in the Northern section 20 meters above the ground. This opening leads to a corridor that takes to an unfinished chamber. Afterwards there is this corridor that is 35 meters in length and it leads to the second chamber of the pyramid.
The second chamber is made out of limestone and it has a square shape with each side being 5 meters size and it is connected to the burial chamber via a hidden corridor which is about 9 meters in length and 3 meters in height.
The Grand Pyramid of Giza with its gigantic size, accurate calculations, and ingenuity, is considered to be an architectural miracle. Constructed more than 4000 years ago, the pyramid is truly breathtaking.
The Pyramid of Chephren
The Pyramid of Chephren is the second largest pyramid in Giza and it belongs to the son of Cheops. The pyramid still has a part of its outer coat at its top. The pyramid of Chephren is around 144 meters in height. However, it is seen as if it was bigger than the grand pyramid of Cheops. This is because it is located on a higher ground. Each side of the pyramid of Chephren is 215.5 meters long.
The Pyramid of Mycerinus
The Pyramid of Mycerinus is the smallest pyramid in Giza. The son of Chephren, king Mycerinus, constructed this pyramid which is about 66 meters in height. Each side of the pyramid of Mycerinus was originally 108 meters long. However, because some of the stones of the pyramid were taken away to be used in other constructions, each side is now around 102 meters long.
The Great Sphinx of Giza
The Sphinx of Giza is this famous large rock cut statue of a lion which has the face of a man. This huge statue guarded the pyramids of Giza since its construction in the 26th century BC most probably by king Chephren. This marvelous statue is 20 feet long and 70 meters in height.
The pyramids of Giza is the most popular and famous landmark of Egypt. A visit to the Giza Pyramids is included in almost all tours to Egypt. Although they were built more than 2500 BC, the pyramids of Giza still present a mystery in their construction and how they fought time in such a way to survive until today.